Use conventional brake pedal for more aggressive braking situations.

Intelligent Cruise Control is not a collision avoidance system or warning device. Designed to use limited braking. Failure to apply the brakes could result in an accident.

ILI operates only when the lane markings are clearly visible. Speed and other limitations apply. See Owner’s Manual for details.

The incentive referenced is for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute tax or legal advice. All persons considering use of available incentives should consult with their own tax or legal professional to determine eligibility, specific amount of incentives available, if any, and further details. The incentive is not within Nissan’s control and is subject to change without notice. Interested parties should confirm the accuracy of the information before relying on it to make a purchase.

Blind Spot Warning and Blind Spot Intervention are not substitutes for proper lane change procedures. The system will not prevent contact with other vehicles or accidents. It may not detect every vehicle or object around you.

Intelligent Around View Monitor (I-AVM) cannot completely eliminate blind spots and may not detect every object. I-AVM operates at vehicle speeds below 5 mph. Always check surroundings and turn to look behind you before moving vehicle.

Air bags are only a supplemental restraint system; always wear your seat belt. Even with the occupant-classification sensor, rear-facing child restraints should not be placed in the front-passenger’s seat. All children 12 and under should ride in the rear seat properly secured in child restraints, booster seats, or seat belts according to their size. Air bags will only inflate in certain accidents; see your Owner’s Manual for more details.

IEB cannot prevent accidents due to carelessness or dangerous driving techniques. It may not provide warning or braking in certain conditions. Speed limitations apply.

Cargo shown for display purposes only. Cargo and load capacity limited by weight and distribution. Always secure all cargo. Cargo and load capacity limited by weight and distribution. Always secure all cargo.

Driving is serious business. Only use NissanConnectSM Services powered by SiriusXM® when safe to do so. Late availability for some features. Services, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data, and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach NissanConnect Customer Care or receive support. Never program while driving. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. You are responsible for using Remote Horn feature in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location. Cellular network not available in all areas and/or at all times. Cellular technology is evolving, and changes to cellular networks provided by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or SXM CVS Canada’s control. Neither Nissan nor SXM CVS Canada are responsible for associated costs that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network termination (including equipment upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Should cellular provider terminate/restrict service, service may be terminated without notice and with no liability to Nissan, SXM CVS Canada, and/or their respective agents or affiliates. Certain services require a PIN for activation. See Nissan.ca/NissanConnect for details. Enrollment and Subscription Agreement is required to receive full suite of services. Terms and conditions of Subscription Agreement apply. Six (6) month trial period begins on your date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan; subsequently a paid subscription is required at the then current rate to continue to receive services. Text rates and/or data usage may apply. Bose® is a registered trademark of The Bose Corporation. iPod® is a registered trademark of Apple, Inc. All rights reserved. iPod® or other external device not included.

Feature availability is dependent on vehicle model, trim level, packaging and options. Compatible connected device may be required and feature availability may be dependent on device’s capability. Refer to connected device’s owner’s manual for details. Late availability for some features.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. Only use features and connected devices when safe and legal to do so. Some features, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach Customer Care or receive support. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. Never program GPS while driving. Only use Remote Engine Start and Remote Horn features in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location.

Some services and features are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should service provider terminate or restrict service or features, service or features may be suspended or terminated without notice or with no liability to Nissan or its partners or agents. Services and features may require compatible cellular network provided by independent companies not within Nissan or its partners’ or agents’ control. Cellular network signal strength may vary and may not be available in all areas or at all times. Services and features may not function if cellular network is unavailable, restricted, or terminated. Nissan and its partners or agents are not responsible for associated costs or other third party changes that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network unavailability, restriction, or termination (including equipment replacements/upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Technology is evolving, and changes by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or its partners’ or agents’ control.

Enrollment, owner consent, personal identification number (PIN), and subscription agreement may be required to receive full suite of features and services. Trial periods (if applicable) begin on the date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan. Trial periods may be subject to change at any time and may be subject to early termination without notice. Required subscriptions may be sold separately for each available feature or service after trial period ends, and may continue until you call service provider to cancel. Installation costs, one-time activation fee, other fees and taxes may apply. Fees and programming subject to change. Feature may be subject to age restrictions in some areas. Subscriptions governed by service provider’s subscription agreement, terms and conditions and privacy statements available at service provider’s website. Text rates or data usage may apply.

The Nissan names, logos and slogans are trademarks owned by or licensed to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. or its North American subsidiaries. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.

For important safety information, system limitations, and additional operating and feature information, see dealer, owner’s manual, or www.NissanUSA.com/connect/important-information.

AAM® is a registered trademark of American Axle & Manufacturing, Inc.
ADVAN Sport® and Yokohama are registered trademarks of Yokohama Tire Corporation.
Aisin® is a registered trademark of Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Corporation.
Alcantara® is a registered trademark of Alcantara S.p.A. Corporation.
Amazon AlexaTM is a trademark, and Amazon® and Amazon.com® are registered trademarks of Amazon Technologies, Inc.
AndroidTM platform is a trademark of Google Inc.
App Store® is a registered trademark of Apple, Inc.
Apple CarPlayTM is a trademark of Apple, Inc.
Bilstein® is a registered trademark of ThyssenKrupp Bilstein GmbH.
Birdview® is a registered trademark of Clarion Co., Ltd.

Never program while driving. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status.

VDC, which should remain on when driving except when freeing the vehicle from mud or snow, cannot prevent accidents due to abrupt steering, carelessness, or dangerous driving techniques.

Prices not applicable in Quebec. Price represents the Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). Price excludes environmental excise fees (where applicable), freight, PDE, air and tire levies, license, registration, insurance, duties, and applicable taxes. Dealer may charge additional administration fees, which may vary by dealer. Dealership may sell for less. Equipment, specifications and price are subject to change without notice..

Provincial EV incentives up to $8,000 (post-tax) are available in certain provinces and are not reflected in price. Please consult your provincial government or local Nissan dealer for details and pricing specific to your region.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. If you have to use the connected device while driving, exercise extreme caution at all times so full attention may be given to vehicle operation.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. If you have to use the feature while driving, exercise extreme caution at all times so full attention may be given to vehicle operation.

Parking aid/convenience feature. Cannot completely eliminate blind spots or warn of moving objects. May not detect every object. Always check surroundings before moving vehicle. Not a substitute for proper backing procedures. Always turn to check what is behind you before backing up.

Feature availability is dependent on vehicle model, trim level, packaging and options. Compatible connected device may be required and feature availability may be dependent on device’s capability. Refer to connected device’s owner’s manual for details. Late availability for some features.
Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. Only use features and connected devices when safe and legal to do so. Some features, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach Customer Care or receive support. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. Never program GPS while driving. Only use Remote Engine Start and Remote Horn features in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location.
Some services and features are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should service provider terminate or restrict service or features, service or features may be suspended or terminated without notice or with no liability to Nissan or its partners or agents. Services and features may require compatible cellular network provided by independent companies not within Nissan or its partners’ or agents’ control. Cellular network signal strength may vary and may not be available in all areas or at all times. Services and features may not function if cellular network is unavailable, restricted, or terminated. Nissan and its partners or agents are not responsible for associated costs or other third party changes that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network unavailability, restriction, or termination (including equipment replacements/upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Technology is evolving, and changes by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or its partners’ or agents’ control.
Enrollment, owner consent, personal identification number (PIN), and subscription agreement may be required to receive full suite of features and services. Trial periods (if applicable) begin on the date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan. Trial periods may be subject to change at any time and may be subject to early termination without notice. Required subscriptions may be sold separately for each available feature or service after trial period ends, and may continue until you call service provider to cancel. Installation costs, one-time activation fee, other fees and taxes may apply. Fees and programming subject to change. Feature may be subject to age restrictions in some areas. Subscriptions governed by service provider’s subscription agreement, terms and conditions and privacy statements available at service provider’s website. Text rates or data usage may apply.
The Nissan names, logos and slogans are trademarks owned by or licensed to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. or its North American subsidiaries. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.
For important safety information, system limitations, and additional operating and feature information, see dealer, owner’s manual, or www.NissanUSA.com/connect/important-information.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. If you have to use the feature while driving, exercise extreme caution at all times so full attention may be given to vehicle operation.

Intelligent Cruise Control is not a collision avoidance system or warning device. Designed to use limited braking. Failure to apply the brakes could result in an accident.

Cargo and load capacity limited by weight and distribution. Always secure all cargo.

Driving is serious business. Only use NissanConnect services when safe to do so. Subscription Agreement required. Compatible smartphone required. Not all app features are available for all models – check www.nissan.ca/owners/nissanconnect/en/index.html for details. May require dealer service visit or software upgrade to activate. Never program while driving. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road regulations. Cellular network not available in all areas. Cellular network, apps, and services, including Google Services, are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should provider terminate/restrict service, service may be terminated without notice or liability to Nissan and/or its agents. Nissan not responsible for any equipment or app replacement/upgrades, or associated costs, that may be required for continued operation. Terms and conditions of Subscription Agreement apply. 12 mo. trial period starts on vehicle sale date; subsequently a paid subscription is required at the then current rate. See retailer for details. Standard text rates and/or data usage may apply.

XM® Satellite Radio is available in the 10 Canadian provinces and the 48 contiguous United States. Basic monthly subscription required and sold separately after trial period.

Subscription subject to customer agreement at siriusxm.ca. All fees and programming subject to change. © 2017 Sirius XM Canada Inc. The Sirius and XM names and all related marks and logos are trademarks of Sirius XM Radio Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Cargo shown for display purposes only. Cargo and load capacities limited by weight and distribution. Always secure all cargo.

Prices not applicable in Quebec. Price represents the Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). Price excludes environmental excise fees (where applicable), freight, PDE (full tank of fuel and floor mats), air and tire levies, license, registration, insurance, duties, and applicable taxes . Dealer may charge additional administration fees, which may vary by dealer. Dealership may sell for less. Equipment, specifications and price are subject to change without notice.

Driving is serious business. Only use NissanConnectSM Services powered by SiriusXM® when safe to do so. Late availability for some features. Services, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data, and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach NissanConnect Customer Care or receive support. Never program while driving. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. You are responsible for using Remote Horn feature in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location. Cellular network not available in all areas and/or at all times. Cellular technology is evolving, and changes to cellular networks provided by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or SXM CVS Canada’s control. Neither Nissan nor SXM CVS Canada are responsible for associated costs that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network termination (including equipment upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Should cellular provider terminate/restrict service, service may be terminated without notice and with no liability to Nissan, SXM CVS Canada, and/or their respective agents or affiliates. Certain services require a PIN for activation. See Nissan.ca/NissanConnect for details. Enrollment and Subscription Agreement is required to receive full suite of services. Terms and conditions of Subscription Agreement apply. Six (6) month trial period begins on your date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan; subsequently a paid subscription is required at the then current rate to continue to receive services. Text rates and/or data usage may apply. Bose® is a registered trademark of The Bose Corporation. iPod® is a registered trademark of Apple, Inc. All rights reserved. iPod® or other external device not included

Driving is serious business. Only use NissanConnect services when safe to do so. Subscription Agreement required. Compatible smartphone required. Not all app features are available for all models – check www.nissan.ca/owners/nissanconnect/en/index.html for details. May require dealer service visit or software upgrade to activate. Never program while driving. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road regulations. Cellular network not available in all areas. Cellular network, apps, and services, including Google Services, are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should provider terminate/restrict service, service may be terminated without notice or liability to Nissan and/or its agents. Nissan not responsible for any equipment or app replacement/upgrades, or associated costs, that may be required for continued operation. Terms and conditions of Subscription Agreement apply. 12 mo. trial period starts on vehicle sale date; subsequently a paid subscription is required at the then current rate. See retailer for details. Standard text rates and/or data usage may apply.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. If you have to use the feature while driving, exercise extreme caution at all times so full attention may be given to vehicle operation.

Information displayed is dependent on how vehicle is equipped.

Feature availability is dependent on vehicle model, trim level, packaging and options. Compatible connected device may be required and feature availability may be dependent on device’s capability. Refer to connected device’s owner’s manual for details. Late availability for some features.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. Only use features and connected devices when safe and legal to do so. Some features, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach Customer Care or receive support. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. Never program GPS while driving. Only use Remote Engine Start and Remote Horn features in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location.

Some services and features are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should service provider terminate or restrict service or features, service or features may be suspended or terminated without notice or with no liability to Nissan or its partners or agents. Services and features may require compatible cellular network provided by independent companies not within Nissan or its partners’ or agents’ control. Cellular network signal strength may vary and may not be available in all areas or at all times. Services and features may not function if cellular network is unavailable, restricted, or terminated. Nissan and its partners or agents are not responsible for associated costs or other third party changes that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network unavailability, restriction, or termination (including equipment replacements/upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Technology is evolving, and changes by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or its partners’ or agents’ control.

Enrollment, owner consent, personal identification number (PIN), and subscription agreement may be required to receive full suite of features and services. Trial periods (if applicable) begin on the date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan. Trial periods may be subject to change at any time and may be subject to early termination without notice. Required subscriptions may be sold separately for each available feature or service after trial period ends, and may continue until you call service provider to cancel. Installation costs, one-time activation fee, other fees and taxes may apply. Fees and programming subject to change. Feature may be subject to age restrictions in some areas. Subscriptions governed by service provider’s subscription agreement, terms and conditions and privacy statements available at service provider’s website. Text rates or data usage may apply.

The Nissan names, logos and slogans are trademarks owned by or licensed to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. or its North American subsidiaries. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.

For important safety information, system limitations, and additional operating and feature information, see dealer, owner’s manual, or www.NissanUSA.com/connect/important-information.

Availability of specific features is dependent upon the phone’s Bluetooth® support. Please refer to your phone owner’s manual for details. Bluetooth word mark and logos are owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc., and any use of such marks by Nissan is under license.

Use the text messaging feature after stopping your vehicle in a safe location. If you have to use the feature while driving, exercise extreme caution at all times so full attention may be given to vehicle operation. Compatible smartphone required. Text rates and/or data usage may apply.

Feature availability is dependent on vehicle model, trim level, packaging and options. Compatible connected device may be required and feature availability may be dependent on device’s capability. Refer to connected device’s owner’s manual for details. Late availability for some features.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. Only use features and connected devices when safe and legal to do so. Some features, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach Customer Care or receive support. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. Never program GPS while driving. Only use Remote Engine Start and Remote Horn features in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location.

Some services and features are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should service provider terminate or restrict service or features, service or features may be suspended or terminated without notice or with no liability to Nissan or its partners or agents. Services and features may require compatible cellular network provided by independent companies not within Nissan or its partners’ or agents’ control. Cellular network signal strength may vary and may not be available in all areas or at all times. Services and features may not function if cellular network is unavailable, restricted, or terminated. Nissan and its partners or agents are not responsible for associated costs or other third party changes that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network unavailability, restriction, or termination (including equipment replacements/upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Technology is evolving, and changes by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or its partners’ or agents’ control.

Enrollment, owner consent, personal identification number (PIN), and subscription agreement may be required to receive full suite of features and services. Trial periods (if applicable) begin on the date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan. Trial periods may be subject to change at any time and may be subject to early termination without notice. Required subscriptions may be sold separately for each available feature or service after trial period ends, and may continue until you call service provider to cancel. Installation costs, one-time activation fee, other fees and taxes may apply. Fees and programming subject to change. Feature may be subject to age restrictions in some areas. Subscriptions governed by service provider’s subscription agreement, terms and conditions and privacy statements available at service provider’s website. Text rates or data usage may apply.

The Nissan names, logos and slogans are trademarks owned by or licensed to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. or its North American subsidiaries. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.

For important safety information, system limitations, and additional operating and feature information, see dealer, owner’s manual, or www.NissanUSA.com/connect/important-information.

Bose® is a registered trademark of The Bose Corporation.

Feature availability is dependent on vehicle model, trim level, packaging and options. Compatible connected device may be required and feature availability may be dependent on device’s capability. Refer to connected device’s owner’s manual for details. Late availability for some features.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. Only use features and connected devices when safe and legal to do so. Some features, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach Customer Care or receive support. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. Never program GPS while driving. Only use Remote Engine Start and Remote Horn features in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location.

Some services and features are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should service provider terminate or restrict service or features, service or features may be suspended or terminated without notice or with no liability to Nissan or its partners or agents. Services and features may require compatible cellular network provided by independent companies not within Nissan or its partners’ or agents’ control. Cellular network signal strength may vary and may not be available in all areas or at all times. Services and features may not function if cellular network is unavailable, restricted, or terminated. Nissan and its partners or agents are not responsible for associated costs or other third party changes that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network unavailability, restriction, or termination (including equipment replacements/upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Technology is evolving, and changes by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or its partners’ or agents’ control.

Enrollment, owner consent, personal identification number (PIN), and subscription agreement may be required to receive full suite of features and services. Trial periods (if applicable) begin on the date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan. Trial periods may be subject to change at any time and may be subject to early termination without notice. Required subscriptions may be sold separately for each available feature or service after trial period ends, and may continue until you call service provider to cancel. Installation costs, one-time activation fee, other fees and taxes may apply. Fees and programming subject to change. Feature may be subject to age restrictions in some areas. Subscriptions governed by service provider’s subscription agreement, terms and conditions and privacy statements available at service provider’s website. Text rates or data usage may apply.

The Nissan names, logos and slogans are trademarks owned by or licensed to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. or its North American subsidiaries. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.

For important safety information, system limitations, and additional operating and feature information, see dealer, owner’s manual, or www.NissanUSA.com/connect/important-information.

Bose® is a registered trademark of The Bose Corporation.

Feature availability is dependent on vehicle model, trim level, packaging and options. Compatible connected device may be required and feature availability may be dependent on device’s capability. Refer to connected device’s owner’s manual for details. Late availability for some features.

Driving is serious business and requires your full attention. Only use features and connected devices when safe and legal to do so. Some features, including automatic crash notification and SOS, are dependent upon the telematics device being in operative condition, its ability to connect to a wireless network, compatible wireless network availability, navigation map data and GPS satellite signal receptions, the absence of which can limit or prevent the ability to reach Customer Care or receive support. GPS mapping may not be detailed in all areas or reflect current road status. Never program GPS while driving. Only use Remote Engine Start and Remote Horn features in accordance with any laws, rules or ordinances in effect in your vehicle’s location.

Some services and features are provided by independent companies not within Nissan’s control. Should service provider terminate or restrict service or features, service or features may be suspended or terminated without notice or with no liability to Nissan or its partners or agents. Services and features may require compatible cellular network provided by independent companies not within Nissan or its partners’ or agents’ control. Cellular network signal strength may vary and may not be available in all areas or at all times. Services and features may not function if cellular network is unavailable, restricted, or terminated. Nissan and its partners or agents are not responsible for associated costs or other third party changes that may be required for continued operation due to cellular network unavailability, restriction, or termination (including equipment replacements/upgrades, if available, or roaming charges on alternative networks). Technology is evolving, and changes by independent companies are not within Nissan’s or its partners’ or agents’ control.

Enrollment, owner consent, personal identification number (PIN), and subscription agreement may be required to receive full suite of features and services. Trial periods (if applicable) begin on the date of vehicle purchase or lease of a new Nissan. Trial periods may be subject to change at any time and may be subject to early termination without notice. Required subscriptions may be sold separately for each available feature or service after trial period ends, and may continue until you call service provider to cancel. Installation costs, one-time activation fee, other fees and taxes may apply. Fees and programming subject to change. Feature may be subject to age restrictions in some areas. Subscriptions governed by service provider’s subscription agreement, terms and conditions and privacy statements available at service provider’s website. Text rates or data usage may apply.

The Nissan names, logos and slogans are trademarks owned by or licensed to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. or its North American subsidiaries. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.

For important safety information, system limitations, and additional operating and feature information, see dealer, owner’s manual, or www.NissanUSA.com/connect/important-information.

Apple CarPlayTM is a trademark of Apple, Inc.
Android AutoTM is a trademark of Google Inc.

Blind Spot Warning and Intelligent Blind Spot Intervention are not substitutes for proper lane change procedures. The system will not prevent contact with other vehicles or accidents. It may not detect every vehicle or object around you.

NRCAN range for the 2019 Nissan LEAF is 363km. Actual range will vary based on driving conditions, use of HVAC and/or accessories, driving habits, weight carried and vehicle’s condition.